We’ve been studying modals of speculation and deduction in class today. They are very often included in FCE Part 4 (Key Word Transformations). I couldn’t find any examples of this exercise which only tested these modals, so I made my own. If you have a link to a similar exercise, please let me know. Also, please feel free to add your own sentences. I wrote these ones quickly during a break, so was a bit short on inspiration! (I added a few after class using sentences my students gave me as a jumping-off point)
I’m sure he’s not Michael Jackson. He died a few years ago!
He _______________________ because he died a few years ago.
It’s possible that in the sales cameras will be cheap enough for me to afford one.
I __________________________ a camera in the sales if they are cheap enough.
I think Sarah isn’t very ill, because I saw her shopping this morning.
Sarah ____________________ because I saw her shopping this morning.
Perhaps Filip is from the Czech Republic – he speaks Czech very well.
Filip ________________________ the Czech Republic because his Czech is very good.
He is so rich that I am sure he is always happy.
He is so rich that ________________ happy.
He looks so pale that I’m sure he has seen a ghost.
He _________________ ghost because now he looks very pale.
I think Alice worked at a hotel last summer, but I’m not sure.
Alice ________________ at a hotel last summer.
Jana speaks excellent Finnish so I’m sure she’s lived in Finland at some point.
Jana ______________________ Finland at some point because she speaks excellent Finnish.
Adam is so loud now that I’m sure he wasn’t a quiet child!
Adam ____________________ a quiet child because he’s so loud now.
She is so scared of dogs, that maybe a dog bit her when she was little.
She is so scared of dogs that she _____________________ a dog when she was little.
I know he wasn’t in London on Saturday because I saw him in Newcastle.
He _______________________ in London on Saturday because I saw him in Newcastle.
She was so happy on Monday morning that I’m sure she had a good weekend.
She was so happy on Monday morning that _______________________ a good weekend.
I think Will’s tired because he didn’t sleep much yesterday.
Will ______________________ because he didn’t sleep much yesterday.
She was probably in a hurry because she forgot to buy a birthday present for her friend,
She forgot to buy a birthday present for her friend and that ___________________ she was in a hurry.
- can’t be Michael Jackson
- might/may be able to buy
- can’t be very ill
- could be from
- he must always be
- must have seen a
- might/may have worked
- must have lived in
- can’t have been
- must have been bitten by
- can’t have been
- she must have had
- could be tired
- might/may have been why
Please feel free to correct my answers if you notice a mistake too!