Technologically and linguistically adventurous EFL teacher, trainer, writer and manager

We’ve been studying modals of speculation and deduction in class today. They are very often included in FCE Part 4 (Key Word Transformations). I couldn’t find any examples of this exercise which only tested these modals, so I made my own. If you have a link to a similar exercise, please let me know. Also, please feel free to add your own sentences. I wrote these ones quickly during a break, so was a bit short on inspiration! (I added a few after class using sentences my students gave me as a jumping-off point)

1.
I’m sure he’s not Michael Jackson. He died a few years ago!

BE

He _______________________ because he died a few years ago.

2.
It’s possible that in the sales cameras will be cheap enough for me to afford one.

ABLE

I __________________________ a camera in the sales if they are cheap enough.

3.
I think Sarah isn’t very ill, because I saw her shopping this morning.

BE

Sarah ____________________ because I saw her shopping this morning.

4.
Perhaps Filip is from the Czech Republic – he speaks Czech very well.

COULD

Filip ________________________ the Czech Republic because his Czech is very good.

5.
He is so rich that I am sure he is always happy.

MUST

He is so rich that ________________ happy.

6.
He looks so pale that I’m sure he has seen a ghost.

MUST

He _________________ ghost because now he looks very pale.

7.
I think Alice worked at a hotel last summer, but I’m not sure.

MIGHT

Alice ________________ at a hotel last summer.

8.
Jana speaks excellent Finnish so I’m sure she’s lived in Finland at some point.

HAVE

Jana ______________________ Finland at some point because she speaks excellent Finnish.

9.
Adam is so loud now that I’m sure he wasn’t a quiet child!

BEEN

Adam ____________________ a quiet child because he’s so loud now.

10.
She is so scared of dogs, that maybe a dog bit her when she was little.

BITTEN

She is so scared of dogs that she _____________________ a dog when she was little.

11.
I know he wasn’t in London on Saturday because I saw him in Newcastle.

HAVE

He _______________________ in London on Saturday because I saw him in Newcastle.

12.
She was so happy on Monday morning that I’m sure she had a good weekend.

HAD

She was so happy on Monday morning that _______________________ a good weekend.

13.
I think Will’s tired because he didn’t sleep much yesterday.

COULD

Will ______________________ because he didn’t sleep much yesterday.

14.
She was probably in a hurry because she forgot to buy a birthday present for her friend,

MIGHT

She forgot to buy a birthday present for her friend and that ___________________ she was in a hurry.

Answers

  • can’t be Michael Jackson
  • might be able to buy
  • can’t be very ill
  • could be from
  • he must always be
  • must have seen a
  • might have worked
  • must have lived in
  • can’t have been
  • must have been bitten by
  • can’t have been
  • she must have had
  • might be tired
  • might have been why

Please feel free to correct my answers if you notice a mistake too!

Enjoy!

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Comments on: "Key Word Transformations with Modals of Speculation/Deduction" (8)

  1. […] Key Word Transformations with Modals of Speculation/Deduction We've been studying modals of speculation and deduction in class today. They are very often included in FCE Part 4 (Key Word Transformations). I couldn't find any examples of this exercise which on… Source: sandymillin.wordpress.com […]

    Like

  2. […] Key Word Transformations with Modals of Speculation/Deduction We've been studying modals of speculation and deduction in class today. They are very often included in FCE Part 4 (Key Word Transformations). I couldn't find any examples of this exercise which on… Source: sandymillin.wordpress.com […]

    Like

  3. HI Sandy,

    Useful stuff!

    Have just posted a link to it on the TeachingEnglish facebook page if you’d like to check there for comments.

    Best,

    Ann

    Like

  4. alexcase said:

    Inspired. Was just about to write the same exercise myself when I thought of trying Google, and ended up here.

    Am going to try something similar for the other parts of the Use of English too, but this is definitely the best part to go with this grammar.

    Like

  5. Thanks so much! Perfect resource for me FCEs, just what I was looking for!

    Like

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