Technologically and linguistically adventurous EFL teacher, trainer, writer and manager

So I want you to tell me what you think went well, what you think didn’t go so well and what you would do differently next time…

Sound familiar? If you’re a teacher trainer, academic manager or even just a teacher who has been through a training course, then the above is probably burned into your brain and has become a mantra. In initial teacher training, at least in my experience, these three points form the start of the post-lesson discussion. And the reason? Reflection.

Most teachers, I hope, would agree that reflection is a useful, maybe even vital, tool for professional development as it helps us dig into what we truly believe in order to then subject it to scrutiny, with the final goal being improved practice. The question I ask myself, though, is would someone on an initial training course (CELTA/CertTESOL) see things the same way? Do they see it as a route to professional competence or merely another hoop to jump through to satisfy the tutor on the other side of the table? Are the reflections that follow the prompts a genuine attempt to understand what just happened to them in the previous 45 minutes? Or strategic responses to tell the tutor what they want to hear? Or even in some cases an attempt to rescue a failing grade by showing real awareness of their class? Only one person in the room truly knows the answer to that question, but, again, from my experience I’ve had reason to believe that required reflection in such stressful circumstances doesn’t always lead to genuine reflection and may in fact be counter-productive.

I struggled with this dilemma for a long time. I came to the conclusion that forced reflection will always be unreliable, so can you engage the trainees in genuine reflection during teaching practice?

The answer…? you can’t. At least, not all of them. Genuine reflection has to come from a place of genuine desire for development and if we’re honest, we have to admit to ourselves that that’s not where the majority of our future teachers are coming from.

In the end, the solution was a simple one: to teach the trainees the benefits of reflection for future development and more importantly how to go about it. This way if they are truly invested in their future development, the tutor can allow the time and space for reflection in feedback. However, for those not interested in future development and more concerned with the certificate they need to secure their visa to work abroad, there’s no need to make them squirm or to elicit the same strategic responses that waste the tutor’s time, their time and the time of their co-trainees.

In response, I’ve created a series of activities designed to lead the trainees through the reflective process and to provide a framework to guide reflection for those interested. This was incorporated into an input session during week 1 of a four-week course.

Stage 1 – Identifying reflection as a rigorous mental process

The session starts with a look at the stages of a reflective process and trainees organise them into what they feel is a logical order. The aim is to lead trainees away from the notion that reflection is simply looking back and highlight the importance of seeking to name the issue and, more importantly, to devise hypotheses for future action. As a kinaesthetic problem-solving activity it tends to generate a lot of discussion too.

I use this process taken from Rodgers (2002:851) which is a summary of John Dewey. However, the exact process isn’t so important. What’s more important is that there is a framework to guide the trainees.

  1. An experience is required to trigger some sort of reflective thought.
  2. The teacher seeks to interpret the experience.
  3. The teacher seeks to name the problem.
  4. The teacher seeks explanations for the problem and general questions are created.
  5. A concrete hypothesis is developed.
  6. The hypothesis is tested.

Stage 2 – Reframing classroom events

In this stage trainees consider typical classroom “problems” and seek to find potential reasons, encouraging them to think deeper than their initial knee-jerk reactions in the classroom. Once they’ve made a list of reasons they spend some time in groups discussing possible ways of addressing each of them in the classroom, which helps to encourage the hypothesis forming described in the stage 1.

The students spoke too much L1!

They got all the answers wrong to the grammar activity

Stage 3 – Categorising reflection

In this stage I get trainees to look at real reflections taken from recorded feedback meetings (these could also be written by the trainer) to highlight the different angles we can reflect from. They spend some time reading them and then categorise them according to what the teacher is talking about. For this I use four categories inspired by Zeichner and Liston (1985).

  1. Reflection which simply recounts the events of the lesson with no real analysis of them.
  2. Reflection which focuses on what worked and didn’t work and how they could address it.
  3. Reflection which focuses on why the teachers chose to do certain things in the lesson and what they hoped to achieve.
  4. Reflection which moves beyond the lesson and questions larger curricular issues.

There is typically a lot of grey areas here, which is good to generate discussion, and leads to the creation of questions to ask themselves to elicit each type of reflection. This has been identified by the trainees as a very important stage.

Stage 4 – Analysing beliefs about teaching

Using the reflections from the previous stage, trainees discuss what the teacher’s beliefs about teaching may be and then compare them to their own beliefs and discuss how aligned they are with how they think languages are learned. This stage should bring the reflective process to a logical conclusion and encourage more critical reflection.


Since introducing this session on the course, feedback has changed. It no longer starts with the holy trinity of feedback questions from earlier, but instead begins with something much simpler: “How do you feel about the lesson today?” Those invested in their own development reflect; not always in useful ways, but as with any skill it takes practice. Those interested in their grade often respond with “How do you feel about it?” or more commonly “Did I pass?” and that’s ok.


Rodgers, C. (2002) ‘Defining reflection: Another look at John Dewey and reflective thinking’ The Teachers College Record Vol. 104, no. 4, pp. 842-866.

Zeichner, K. M., & Liston, D. (1985) ‘Varieties of discourse in supervisory conferences’ Teaching and Teacher Education Vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 155-174

About the author

Dan Baines has been teaching English since 2004 and been involved in some form of teacher development since finishing his DELTA in 2008.  He currently works for the British Council in Prague and as a freelance Trinity CertTESOL and DipTESOL tutor.

Dan Baines

Comments on: "Rethinking reflection in initial teacher training (guest post)" (9)

  1. Jerry Milling said:

    Do you know of any online conversation exchange sites I can refer an old student of mine to? Thanks.



  2. A thought-provoking post. I think reflection in teacher training courses also depends on how much teaching experience the trainees have. I did my CELTA after having been teaching for two years, so I found the post-lesson reflections useful, but I like your point about making reflection approachable from different angles to suit the needs/interests of all trainees.


    • Agreed. You can often (but not always) see a difference in reflection between those who’ve already been teaching for a while and those who haven’t. Though sometimes the experienced ones are also more defensive!


      • That can be true! Do you tend to differentiate between less and more experienced teachers in terms of how they reflect? (Or do the teachers differentiate themselves?) It seems as if the focus of reflection would also shift with experience.


    • Dan Baines said:

      First of all, thanks for reading and commenting.

      I think to a point you are right and that experience can be a factor in reflection as they have a little more to build upon in their reflection. I’ve also noticed that over the course reflection tends to become deeper and the points made by the trainees tend to start to become more aligned with those of the tutor.

      However, I think that the biggest barrier is investment in their own career and development. Some of the most critical reflection I have encountered is from teachers with a few years experienced who decided that some form of formal qualification would benefit them. On the other hand, some of the most frustrating feedback sessions I have had have been with teachers with 5+ years experience who were taking the course because either their employers demanded it or that certain institutions would employ them without a certificate. The latter often brings superficial, and I would say fairly pointless, reflection which is there to placate the trainer more than to aid development.

      I think I’d also say, to an extent, that it depends on the trainees experience with reflection in general and personality. Some are naturally reflective while others are far from it.

      To address your later reply, I think the focus of reflection undegoes a lot of change depending on experience. I’d say that to begin with it often focuses on surface things such as rapport and teacher language, but they often move beyond this fairly quickly as their knowledge and experience expands. i wouldn’t say that the reflection of the more experienced is always more productive, but it tends to be more varied in focus, that’s true.


  3. fionaljp said:

    Many thanks for this very interesting post Dan. I have been thinking along the same lines in terms of of how to encourage more autonomous reflection rather than forced (and assessed) on initial teacher training courses and I really like your idea of having an input session on the value of reflection. I’ve been working on the idea of making an ebook – reflection on page 7. Would value any thoughts: fionaljp: My CELTA eBook


  4. […] seems to be getting some more attention on other chats as well – and blog posts, like the guest post on Sandy Millin’s blog I saw shared on Twitter earlier […]


  5. […] of your whiteboard and reflecting on them. He’s previously written a post on this blog about Rethinking reflection in initial teacher training. Over to […]


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

Tag Cloud

%d bloggers like this: